Secret Sharing of a Quantum State

Date: 2016-07-13
Authors He Lu, Zhen Zhang, Luo-Kan Chen, Zheng-Da Li, Chang Liu, Li Li, Nai-Le Liu, Xiongfeng Ma, Yu-Ao Chen, and Jian-Wei Pan
Journal No. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 030501 (2016)
Abstract Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.