Entanglement-Based Machine Learning on a Quantum Computer

Date: 2015-03-19
Authors X.-D. Cai, D. Wu, Z.-E. Su, M.-C. Chen, X.-L. Wang, Li Li, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan
Journal No. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 110504 (2015)
Abstract Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing “big data” could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can, in principle, be scaled to larger numbers of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning.