Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

Date: 2014-01-10
Authors Yang Liu, Yuan Cao, Marcos Curty, Sheng-Kai Liao, Jian Wang, Ke Cui, Yu-Huai Li, Ze-Hong Lin, Qi-Chao Sun, Dong-Dong Li, Hong-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhao, Teng-Yun Chen, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Qiang Zhang, Adán Cabello, and Jian-Wei Pan
Journal No. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 010504 (2014)
Abstract Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10−2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.