Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments

Date: 2010-05-24
Authors B. Jungnitsch, S. Niekamp, M. Kleinmann, O. G├╝hne, H. Lu, W. -B. Gao, Y. -A. Chen, Z. -B. Chen, and J. -W. Pan,
Journal No. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 210401 (2010)
Abstract Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.